"The physical properties of the cellular environment are involved in regulating the formation and maintenance of tissues. In particular, substrate rigidity appears to be a key factor dictating cell response on culture surfaces. Here we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates engineered to exhibit an anisotropic stiffness. The substrate consists of a dense array of micropillars of oval cross-section, so that one direction is made stiffer than the other
"Small RNAs are important regulators of gene expression. In maize, adaxial/abaxial (dorsoventral) leaf polarity is established by an abaxial gradient of microRNA166 (miR166), which spatially restricts the expression domain of class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIPIII) transcription factors that specify adaxial/upper fate."