Mammalian skin requires constant maintenance, but how do skin cells know when to proliferate and at what rate? In the March 23, 2009 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology, Nguan Soon Tan and colleagues reveal that skin fibroblasts use a protein called PPARβ/δ to make sure overlying epithelial cells don't proliferate too quickly. Their results highlight how communications between different cell types are critical to maintain the skin as a barrier against the outside world
Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC) have identified a signaling pathway that helps regulate the movement of blood-forming stem cells in the body—a finding that provides important new insight into how stem cells move around the body and which may lead to improvements in the efficiency of bone marrow transplants.
The study will appear in the journal Nature, and is available online March 25th
Every tumor, starting from a size of a few millimeters, depends on a supply of nutrients and oxygen. This is why tumors use special growth factors to induce the vascular wall cells of neighboring blood vessels to sprout new capillaries in their direction. The study discussed in this article explores the role of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in this type of angiogenesis.
Investigators at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) have learned that a protein called Shp2 plays a critical role in the pathways that control decisions for differentiation and self-renewal in both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs).
The research, led by Gen-Sheng Feng, Ph.D., differs with some earlier findings that suggested hESCs and mESCs differentiate as a result of different signaling mechanisms
Researchers at Uppsala University have developed a new tool that makes it possible to study the signals in the body that control the generation of blood vessels. The researchers’ findings, published in the new issue of Lab on a Chip, enable scientists to determine what signals in the body attract or repel blood vessels, knowledge that is extremely interesting in tumor research.
Scientists at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) have determined the structure of the interactions between proteins that form the heart of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which is responsible for triggering apoptosis (programmed cell death).
No matter the species, from flies to humans, we all start the same: a single-cell fertilized egg that embarks on an incredible journey. The specifics of this journey are being uncovered at Rutgers University-Camden, where a biologist is researching how from one cell a jumble of many are able to organize and communicate, allowing life to spring forth.
According to Nir Yakoby, a recently appointed assistant professor of biology at Rutgers–Camden, his work on cell communication is a lot like genetic play dough
Doctors may soon be able to use blood tests rather than invasive biopsies to figure out what type of brain tumors their patients have. The findings, which come thanks to new insights about how tumor cells communicate with their environment, may also bring physicians closer to the goal of more personalized medicine.
Cells are chatty, constantly exchanging proteins or electrical signals with their neighbors. For example, tumor cells can signal nearby blood vessels to grow in their direction, thereby facilitating tumor growth
Scientists have detected previously unnoticed chemical signals that individual cells use to communicate with each other over short distances. Minding the communiques of individual cells might not be so important for studying the heart or bones, but it is absolutely crucial to studying the immune system.
A major challenge of systems biology is to understand how network topology affects protein dynamics in living cells. A new study show that p53 pulses are driven by pulses in the upstream signaling kinases, ATM and Chk2, and that a negative feedback mediated by the phosphatase Wip1 is essential for maintaining the uniform shape of p53 pulses.
In this study, it is the first time Akt signaling has been shown from the endosome. And the Akt is known to signal from the plasma membrane, but an upstream regulator of Akt called APPL1, which is known to interact directly with Akt, has been reported to reside on endosomes.
This paper is about a monopolar HeLa system which is used to determine how the cytokinetic furrow is created. From the research,the author tells us that splitting mitotic cells in two is not the one-way signaling road it once seemed, based on evidence from Hu et al.
Macroautophagy is an evolutionary conserved lysosomal pathway involved in the turnover of cellular macromolecules and organelles. In spite of its essential role in tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms regulating mammalian macroautophagy are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a rise in the free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) is a potent inducer of macroautophagy
B-RAF is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting "active" protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. The article represents the entire discovery process of a selective inhibitor , from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-RafV600E-driven tumors.